As a Kubernetes administrator I frequently find myself needing to debug application and system issues. Most of the issues I encounter can be solved with Grafana dashboards and Prometheus metrics, or by running one or more Elasticsearch queries to examine logs. But there are times when I need to go deeper and actually inspect activity inside a running pod. A lot of debugging guides use the kubectl exec command to run one or more commands inside a container:
kubectl exec -it container-XXXX dig @10.10.0.1 google.com
But what happens if you don’t have a shell installed in the container? Or what if your container runs as an unprivileged user (which it should), and the tools you need to debug the issue aren’t installed? Kinda hard to install utilities if you don’t have root, and it defeats the whole point of ephemeral infrastructure. In these situations the Linux nsenter command will become your best friend!
If you aren’t familiar with nsenter, it allows you to run a program in a given namespace. So lets say you have a microservice running in your Kubernetes cluster, and your developers tell you that DNS resolution isn’t working correctly. To debug this issue with nsenter, you can access the host the service is running on, and execute nsenter with the “-t” (process to target) and “-n” (enter the network namespace) options. The final argument is the command to run in the processes network namespace:
nsenter -t 1294 -n dig +short @10.11.2.2 *.*.svc.cluster.local
In the example above, nsenter ran the dig command again the cluster DNS service IP. It also used the dig binary that resides on the hosts file system, not the containers. Nsenter is also super helpful when you need to capture traffic going in and out of a container:
nsenter -t 1294 -n tcpdump -i eth0 port 80 and "tcp[tcpflags] & tcp-syn != 0"
tcpdump: verbose output suppressed, use -v or -vv for full protocol decode listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 262144 bytes 06:04:20.424938 IP 10.11.2.1.39168 > 10.11.2.3.80: Flags [S], seq 1491800784, win 29200, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 59669904 ecr 0,nop,wscale 7], length 0 06:04:20.425000 IP 10.11.2.3.80 > 10.11.2.1.39168: Flags [S.], seq 3823341284, ack 1491800785, win 28960, options [mss 1460,sackOK,TS val 59669904 ecr 59669904,nop,wscale 7], length 0
In the example above, nsenter executed the tcpdump utility inside process ID 1294’s namespace. What makes this super powerful is the fact that you can run your containers with the minimum number of bits needed to run your application, and your application can also run as an unprivileged user. When you need to debug issues you don’t need to touch the container. You just fire up the binary on your Kubernetes worker and debug away.