One of my friends reached out to me earlier this week to help him with an elasticsearch issue. He was trying to bring up a new cluster to see how ES compares to splunk and was getting a “bootstrap checks failed” error at startup. This was causing his elasticsearch java processes to bind to localhost instead of the hostname he assigned to the network.host value. Here is a snippet of what I saw when I reviewed the logs:
[2017-08-19T11:31:25,457][ERROR][o.e.b.Bootstrap ] [elastic01] node validation exception  bootstrap checks failed : max file descriptors  for elasticsearch process is too low, increase to at least  : max virtual memory areas vm.max_map_count  is too low, increase to at least 
Elasticsearch has two modes of operation: development and production. In development mode elasticsearch will bind to localhost allowing you to tinker with settings, test features and break things without impacting other nodes on your network. In production mode elasticsearch will bind to an external interface allowing it to communicate with other nodes and form clusters. Elasticsearch runs a number of bootstrap checks to help it figure out which mode to operate in. These checks are put in place to protect you server from data corruption and network partitions which the developers have seen more than once:
“Collectively, we have a lot of experience with users suffering unexpected issues because they have not configured important settings. In previous versions of Elasticsearch, misconfiguration of some of these settings were logged as warnings. Understandably, users sometimes miss these log messages. To ensure that these settings receive the attention that they deserve, Elasticsearch has bootstrap checks upon startup.”
The settings the documentation is referring to are described in the important settings and system settings documentation. In my friends case he didn’t increase the vm.max_map_count or the number of file descriptors available to the elasticsearch Java process. Once he got these fixed up his test cluster fired right up.